FANDOM


Back to Past papers

Section A

Answer question 1.

1 In many Asian societies, there has been an increase in female headed households. This is due to a variety of reasons including widowhood, migration, marital instability and women choosing to have children outside of marriage. In recent decades an increasing number of women, particularly rural women, have become heads of households because men, the traditional heads of households, have moved away from home to find employment. Moreover, due to civil unrest and natural disasters, a refugee situation exists in a number of countries in the region, often resulting in females taking over the task of running the household.

(a) What is meant by the term households? [2]

One mark for a partial definition such as the people in a house together.

Two marks for a clear and accurate definition such as a group of people living in a house who share facilities.

(b) Describe two causes of marital instability. [4]

Points that can be included are:

• changing laws allowing divorce

• female access to paid employment

• changing attitudes to the value of marriage

• weakening of traditional means of social control, for example through the absence of men, or women, from household for employment, or other reasons

• any other valid point.

Answers can refer to reasons for instability within marriage in any society.

One mark for each cause plus one mark for development (2 × 2)

(c) Explain why the social status of women can change when men move away from home to find employment. [8]

L 1 0–4 Answers at this level are likely to show only limited appreciation of the issues raised in the question.

Lower in the level, a simple answer which identifies how, when men are away, women have to carry out all the tasks, may be worth 1 or 2 marks.

Higher in the level, an answer might advance a few limited observations, such as women having to make decisions without reference to husbands, or having to control the household, may be worth 3 or 4 marks, but there will be little depth in the explanations offered and the answer will rely on description rather than explanation.

L 2 5–8 Answers at this level show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, answers may be a simple description of the way in which women may become the household head in the absence of males. Other factors that could be referred to can include, having to make decisions for sons, factors influencing social status such as wage earning, age and social position in the stratification system. Such answers could receive a mark of 5 or 6.

Higher in the level, a more detailed account of how the social status of women can change could gain 7 or 8 marks. Such answers can include the effects of family planning, education, and changing social status. Place at the top of the level according to the depth and/or range of examples explained and supported by reference to theory or empirical data.

N.B. This question asks candidates to ‘explain’ therefore there is no requirement for assessment.

(d) Assess the view that the nuclear family is no longer the main type of family in modern industrial society. [11]

L 1 0–4 Answers at this level are likely to show only limited appreciation of the issues raised in the question.

Lower in the level, a simple answer that identifies a few basic features about different types of families may gain 1 or 2 marks; these types of answers may describe different, specific families rather than outline different structures.

Higher in the level, an answer might advance a few limited observations or general descriptions of different family structures and whether they are to be found in modern industrial societies. Such answers may go to the top of the level and receive 3–4 marks. Other top of the level answers may argue that nuclear families are not to be found in modern industrial societies and describe alternative types with little or no reference to the question.

L 2 5–8 Answers at this level show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, a simplistic description of the way in which the nuclear family can no longer be seen as the main type of family in modern industrial societies, would be worth a mark of 5 or 6. Such answers could be supported by descriptions of the variety of family types to be found in different societies.

Another answer worth 5 or 6 marks could argue that the nuclear family is still the dominant family form to be found in modern industrial societies. This may be supported by evidence, such as statistics on household structures.

Higher in the level, there will be a more detailed account of the diversity of family forms to be found, and may be worth 7 or 8 marks. Answers may note that nuclear families did not necessarily dominate in the past and/or that they may still be found in modern industrial societies.

A descriptive answer cannot gain more than 8 marks.

L 3 9–11 Answers at this level will demonstrate good sociological knowledge and understanding applied to the question. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based.

Lower in the level, 9–10 marks, the assessment may be based on a simple juxtaposition of the way in which nuclear families can and cannot be seen as the main type of family to be found in modern industrial society, or may be confined to just one or two evaluative points.

At the top of the level, 11 marks, theories will be evaluated explicitly and in reasonable depth. The notion of the nuclear family being the main type, or not, will be directly addressed, probably by a discussion of key concepts such as globalisation, different cultural expectations, five types of diversity and a variety of different family structures.


Section B

Answer either question 2 or question 3.

2 Explain and assess the view that men continue to dominate family life. [25]

L 1 0–6 Answers at this level are likely to be assertive and focus on a few common sense observations about the different activities that man and women undertake in the house/home (which can be stated as either having changed or not changed) with little or no sociological support.

Lower in the level, answers may be confined to one or two simple points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, one or two simple points about men undertaking more household tasks such as DIY or child care, may gain up to 3 marks.

Higher in the level, there may be a wider range of simple points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, an answer stating that men make all the decisions, control money and have more privileges than women, may gain up to 6 marks.

L 2 7–12 Answers at this level will show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, 7–9 marks, the answer may be confined to a narrow range of points, lacking detail and include some inaccuracies. For example, an outline of changes in the law or social changes that may have weakened patriarchy, but with no development, may gain up to 9 marks.

Higher in the level, 10–12 marks, answers may either cover a narrow range of points in reasonable detail or cover a wider range of points in limited detail.

Points candidates might cover include discussion of, for example, the continuation of domestic violence, or a discussion of other theories, such as functionalist views, for example, Talcott Parsons and instrumental and expressive roles that are seen as ‘different but equal’. Such answers are likely to rely on one theory.

L 3 13–18 Answers at this level will show good sociological knowledge and understanding. The material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question. There is no requirement for assessment at this level.

Lower in the level, 13–15 marks, answers may use only a limited range of knowledge. There will be little or no accurate use of concepts/theory, and the points covered may lack development.

Higher in the level, 16–18 marks, answers will use a wider range of knowledge, supported by the use of concepts/theory where relevant and include some welldeveloped points.

L 4 19–25 Answers at this level must achieve three things: first there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding; second the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question; and third there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Lower in the level, 19–21 marks, the assessment may be largely delivered through juxtaposition of contrasting arguments/theories. Alternatively, the assessment may be limited to just one or two evaluative points that are explicitly stated.

Higher in the level, 22–25 marks, there will be sustained assessment and the points offered will be explicit and well-directed towards the question. There is likely to be a well-formulated conclusion.

Points that can be included are the position of sons relative to daughters in many societies, the evidence of continuing domestic violence and the changing work patterns and economic independence of women. Other concepts such as dual burden, new man companionate marriage, fertility issues and joint and segregated family roles may also be usefully applied to answers for this question.

3 Explain and assess the view that family structures are becoming less diverse. [25]

L 1 0–6 Answers at this level are likely to be assertive and focus on a few common sense observations about many different types of families being found in modern industrial societies (which can be stated as either having become more or less diverse) with little or no sociological support.

Lower in the level, answers may be confined to one or two simple points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, one or two simple points about universal trends to smaller families, may gain up to 3 marks.

Higher in the level, there may be a wider range of simple points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, an answer describing a number of different family types to be found in modern industrial societies, may go up to 6 marks.

L 2 7–12 Answers at this level will show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, 7–9 marks, the answer may be confined to a narrow range of points, lacking detail and include some inaccuracies. For example, an outline of how diversity may have declined in some societies with no development, may gain up to 9 marks.

Higher in the level, 10–12 marks, answers may either cover a narrow range of points in reasonable detail, or cover a wider range of points in limited detail.

Points candidates might cover include a discussion of the types of families to be found in societies and how the family structures may have adapted to different cultural situations or economic factors.

L 3 13–18 Answers at this level will show good sociological knowledge and understanding. The material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question. There is no requirement for assessment at this level.

Lower in the level, 13–15 marks, answers may use only a limited range of knowledge. There will be little, or no accurate use of concepts/theory, and the points covered may lack development.

Answers that enter this level could refer to ideas linked to the development of a global culture and may take the form of observations on the possible effects of Westernisation and its impact on family life worldwide.

Higher in the level, 16–18 marks, answers will use a wider range of knowledge, supported by the use of concepts/theory where relevant, and include some welldeveloped points.

This discussion may cover the functionalist view and emphasis on the development of one family type. An alternative answer would reject convergence in favour of fundamentalist trends that are preserving local cultures. Answers may rely on the juxtaposition of different contemporary examples in societies.

L 4 19–25 Answers at this level must achieve three things: first, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding; second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question; and third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Lower in the level, 19–21 marks, the assessment may be largely delivered through juxtaposition of contrasting arguments/theories. Alternatively, the assessment may be limited to just one or two evaluative points that are explicitly stated.

Higher in the level, 22–25 marks, there will be sustained assessment and the points offered will be explicit and well-directed towards the question. There is likely to be a well-formulated conclusion.

Points that could be included can be a reference to globalisation and the ability of individuals to select their own life style making reference to post modernism.

Candidates may argue that migration is making some families trans-national, or that unique family forms are to be found in some societies. Concepts such as the chosen family, negotiated family and the convergence of diversity can be referred to, as well as other relevant concepts.

Useful information (Hints)

Question 1(a)

Question 1(b)

Question 1(c)

Question 1(d)

Question 2

Question 3