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Section A

Answer question 1.

1 International migration has a significant impact on the family. However, migration within a society also affects the structure and functions of the family. For married women the chances to break out from a domestic role appear to be greater in urban than in rural areas. Women can more easily avoid the direct control of their family, causing traditional family structures to collapse and making it easier for new ones to develop. Such outcomes are particularly important in patrilineal societies, when migration results in women living away from their husband’s family.

This isolation from kin encourages the development of more equal and emotionally intimate relationships between husbands and wives. Thus a study of urban neighbourhoods in northern India carried out in 1992 found fewer wives became integrated into their husband’s kinship networks. At the same time as having weaker ties with their husband’s families, these women seemed to have closer ties with their own family of birth than was typical in traditional rural India.

(a) What is meant by the term patrilineal? [2]

One mark for a partial definition such as when boys get their parents money or name.

Two marks for an accurate definition of patrilineal as when property and names pass through the male heirs of a family.

(b) Describe two types of family structure that may develop when people move to urban areas. [4]

Types of family structure identified can include, single parent, same sex, beanpole, blended or any other valid family structure.

A mark can be allowed where a candidate identifies ‘smaller families’ as an example.

One mark for the naming of the relevant type of family structure, plus one mark for development (2 × 2 marks).

(c) Explain how isolation from kin can encourage more equal and emotionally intimate relationships. [8]

L1 0–4 Answers at this level are likely to show only limited appreciation of the issues raised in the question.

Lower in the level, a simple answer which identifies how, when couples move away from their kin, they have to rely on each other may be worth 1 or 2 marks.

Higher in the level, an answer might advance a few limited observations such as women having to make decisions about child care without reference to mothers, or having to control the household on their own may be worth 3 or 4 marks, but there will be little depth in the explanations offered and the answer will rely on description rather than explanation.

L2 5–8 Answers at this level show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, a simplistic description of the way in which egalitarian or companionate relationships may develop when there are no other kin around, can receive a mark of 5 or 6.

Higher in the level, a more detailed account of how the breakdown of traditional forms of social control makes it possible for new ones to develop. This can include social, as well as family, life. Such answers can gain 7 or 8 marks. Place at the top of the level according to depth and/or range of examples explained and supported by reference to theory or empirical data.

N.B. This question asks candidates to ‘explain’ therefore there is no requirement for assessment.

(d) Assess the view that migration weakens extended families. [11]

L1 0–4 Answers at this level are likely to show only limited appreciation of the issues raised in the question.

Lower in the level, a simple answer that identifies a few basic features, or a few general points, about how, when families migrate, they have more difficulty keeping in contact with wider kin, may gain 1 or 2 marks.

Higher in the level, answers may advance a few limited observations, or general descriptions about how this has led to migrating families having to rely on their own resources (or those left behind having to rely on themselves) may be worth a mark of 3 or 4.

L2 5–8 Answers at this level show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question. In this mark level, migration will most likely be interpreted as rural to urban.

Lower in the level, a simplistic description of the way in which, when families (couples/singles) are forced to move away from the wider kin to seek work, nuclear family types are likely to develop and extended family forms break down. This is likely to be supported by the functionalist views of such key thinkers as Talcott Parsons and could gain up to 5 or 6 marks.

Higher in the level, a more detailed account which explains the meaning of ‘weakens’, perhaps by quoting evidence of Anderson or Young and Willmott in terms of extended family support within urban communities, could gain up to 7 or 8 marks.

A descriptive answer cannot gain more than 8 marks.

L3 9–11 Answers at this level will demonstrate good sociological knowledge and understanding applied to the question. There will also be an assessment of the view on which the question is based.

Answers at this level should provide an account of the way in which kinship can be affected by migration. In this level migration may be interpreted as internal/external, rural/urban or urban/rural, or in terms of just one family member seeking work.

Lower in the level, 9–10 marks, the assessment may be based on a simple juxtaposition of the ways in which migration can weaken family ties, but also how they can be maintained, perhaps with reference to new forms of communication, or assessment may be confined to just one or two evaluative points.

At the top of the level, 11 marks, ‘migration weakens’ will be evaluated explicitly and in reasonable depth. The notion of migration as an influence on family structures will be directly addressed, probably by a discussion of key concepts such as family unity, modified extended family, dispersed extended family; isolated nuclear family may be referred to as well as studies such as that of Young and Willmott who researched migration in the 1950s and 1960s.


Section B

Answer either question 2 or question 3.

2 Explain and assess the view that marriage is in decline in modern industrial societies. [25]

L 1 0–6 Answers at this level are likely to be assertive and focus on a few common sense observations with little or no sociological support.

Lower in the level, answers may be confined to one or two simple points based on assertion/common sense understanding. For example, one or two points about the growing trend to singlehood or same sex relationships may gain up to 3 marks.

Higher in the level, there may be a wider range of points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, a few points about diversity in relationships, delay in marriage, or increasing amounts of divorce, may gain up to 6 marks.

L 2 7–12 Answers at this level will show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, 7–9 marks, the answer may be confined to a narrow range of points, lacking detail and including some inaccuracies. For example, a basic account of changing laws with regard to marriage, or changing attitudes to cohabitation would enter this mark level. Other answers may argue that marriage remains the norm; such answers with no development, may gain up to 9 marks.

Higher in the level, 10–12 marks, answers may either cover a narrow range of points in reasonable detail or cover a wider range of points in limited detail.

Points candidates might cover include, legal changes, changes in attitudes to cohabitation, values attached to marriage, traditional attitudes to marriage, changing birth and death rates, as well as the consequences of changing work patterns.

L 3 13–18 Answers at this level will show good sociological knowledge and understanding. The material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question. There is no requirement for assessment at this level.

Lower in the level, 13–15 marks, answers may use only a limited range of knowledge. There will be little or no use of concepts/theory, and the points covered may lack development.

Higher in the level, 16–18 marks, answers will use a wider range of knowledge, supported by the use of concepts/theory where relevant, and include some welldeveloped points. Answers that enter this level may refer to ideas linked to such thinkers as, Weston; that couples have more choice in lifestyle in modern industrial societies.

Lower in the level the discussion may be limited to a comparison of societies, such as Britain, to one such as Nigeria, and the differences to be found between them.

L 4 19–25 Answers at this level must achieve three things: first, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding; second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question; and third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Lower in the level, 19–21 marks, the assessment may be largely delivered through juxtaposition of contrasting arguments/theories. Alternatively, the assessment may be limited to just one or two evaluative points that are explicitly stated.

Higher in the level, 22–25 marks, there will be a sustained assessment and the points offered will be explicit and well-directed towards the question. There is likely to be a well-formulated conclusion.

There will also be a sustained and well informed assessment of the extent to which traditional marriage exists such as the pressures to marry in a variety of societies. Lower in the level this assessment may still be mainly by juxtaposition of the main sociological theories about the threats to marriage, such as the ease of divorce.

There may also be a more direct analysis of the extent to which marriage exists in different societies. This analysis may take the form of arguing that legal changes have allowed them to develop, or that it is only allowing officially what always existed in the form of empty shell marriages or desertion.

To gain the highest marks there may be a discussion as to how marriage is socially constructed and related to issues such as the economy. Another way of gaining the highest level would be to discuss normative expectations in a range of societies. Concepts that can usefully be included are forced marriage, family of choice, child marriages, LATS (living apart together), empty shell marriage, as well as many others. There should be some evidence of a conclusion at this level.

3 Explain and assess the view that age is a more significant factor than gender in determining an individual’s experience of family life. [25]

L 1 0–6 Answers at this level are likely to be assertive and focus on a few common sense observations about either gender or age in relation to the family with little or no sociological support.

Lower in the level, answers may be confined to one or two simple points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, one or two points about either the position of boys and girls or the position of the elderly and the young in relation to the family, may gain 1 or 2 marks.

Higher in the level, there may be a wider range of points based on assertion and/or common sense understanding. For example, an answer stating how status can be linked to age or gender, or some limited understanding of how status is gained, for example, by economic contribution, may gain up to 6 marks.

L 2 7–12 Answers at this level will show some sociological knowledge and understanding of the question.

Lower in the level, 7–9 marks, answers may be confined to a narrow range of points, lacking in detail and including some inaccuracies. For example, a basic account of the importance of gender or age in determining status within the family with no reference to issues such as the social position/status of the family, or an outline of family obligations that different individuals may have with no development, may gain up to 9 marks.

Higher in the level, 10–12 marks, answers may either cover a narrow range of points in reasonable detail or cover a wider range of points in limited detail.

Points for discussion might include, for example, age and gender as forming the status of individuals within families linked to different societies, and how class or stratification may influence position.

L 3 13–18 Answers at this level will show good sociological knowledge and understanding. The material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question. There is no requirement for assessment at this level.

Lower in the level, 13–15 marks, answers may use only a limited range of knowledge. There will be little or no use of concepts/theory, and the points covered may lack development.

Higher in the level, 16–18 marks, answers will use a wider range of knowledge, supported by the use of concepts/theory where relevant and include some welldeveloped points.

Answers that enter this level may refer to ideas linked to a decrease in numbers of the young and an increase in the numbers of the elderly to be found in many societies.

Other answers may be linked to the changing attitude towards women and men in society and how this may be reflected in family life. An alternative approach would be to focus on the continuity of family life. Lower in the level the discussion may be limited to either gender or age, but may highlight the cumulative effect of these factors.

To get into the higher part of the level there could be some assessment of an issue, such as that outlined by the functionalists as to the extent to which the disengagement of the elderly may apply to family life and status within families, but such answers may have a limited range.

However, this assessment will be lacking in detail and may rely on the juxtaposition of different theories of disengagement and reconstruction.

L 4 19–25 Answers at this level must achieve three things: first, there will be good sociological knowledge and understanding; second, the material used will be interpreted accurately and applied effectively to answering the question; and third, there must also be some evidence of assessment.

Lower in the level, 19–21 marks, the assessment may be largely delivered through juxtaposition of contrasting arguments/theories. Alternatively, the assessment may be limited to just one or two evaluative points that are explicitly stated.

Higher in the level, 22–25 marks, there will be a sustained assessment and the points offered will be explicit and well-directed towards the question. There is likely to be a well-formulated conclusion.

Answers in this level will provide a solid account of the social position of different age groups, or individuals within the family, with reference to gender.

There will also be a sustained and well informed assessment of treatment received by different groups in families, such as abuse which is more significant for elderly females than elderly males (Payne).

Lower in the level this assessment may still be mainly by juxtaposition of the main sociological theories such as abuse versus ‘grey’ capitalism. There may also be a more direct analysis of the position of all groups. This analysis could take the form of arguing that gender and age are not to be seen in isolation.

To get to the highest level these issues can be linked to the exercise of power within families. Another way of gaining the highest level would be to argue that the position of elderly women in an affluent family may be better than a young boy in poverty. Good use can be made of such concepts as gender variations, dependency ratio, ageism and disengagement, as well as others.

There should be evidence of a conclusion in this band.

Useful information (Hints)

Question 1(a)

Question 1(b)

Question 1(c)

Question 1(d)

Question 2

Question 3